Each student must undertake a project as a demonstration of his/her competence in geospatial science and technologies. The data and materials for this project can originate from an internship (internal or external to the department), or from relevant work experience at the student's current employer. The Department of Geographical Sciences will work with each student individually to determine the best mechanism for obtaining the necessary data and experience. Under the direction of a faculty advisor, the student will prepare a Project Report which shall contain an explanation of the requirements for the work, a technical account of the activities undertaken, including a literature review, a description of the methods and approaches taken, a critical discussion of the results obtained, along with conclusions and recommendations developed from the project. The final project will consist of a full-fledged GIS application that is up and running and can be tested. This will enable the student to present potential employers with a portfolio containing an example of their ability to manage and develop a GIS application project and will show that they understand how to apply the technology to real world situations.